Nhãn hiệu tập thể

Để phân biệt hàng hóa, dịch vụ của các tổ chức khác nhau trong cùng một lĩnh vực, người ta thường sử dụng những dấu hiệu nhất định gọi là nhãn hiệu. Khi nhãn hiệu được sử dụng để phân biệt hàng hóa, dịch vụ của các thành viên của tổ chức là chủ sở hữu nhãn hiệu đó với hàng hóa, dịch vụ của tổ chức, cá nhân không phải là thành viên của tổ chức đó thì được gọi là nhãn hiệu tập thể.

Nhãn hiệu tập thể thường được sử dụng nhằm khuếch trương các sản phẩm mang đặc trưng của một vùng nhất định. Thực tế hiện nay cho thấy, đa phần chủ sở hữu nhãn hiệu tập thể tại Việt Nam đều là các hiệp hội, hợp tác xã hay một tổ chức chính trị-xã hội nào đó mà không phải là các tổ chức kinh doanh. Tuy nhiên, bản thân các tổ chức này không tự mình sử dụng nhãn hiệu tập thể mà trao cho các thành viên của mình quyền sử dụng nhãn hiệu tập thể với điều kiện họ phải đáp ứng và tuân thủ một cách nghiêm ngặt các quy định trong quy chế và sử dụng nhãn hiệu tập thể. Đối với một số sản phẩm việc tiếp thị đơn lẻ sẽ gặp nhiều khó khăn hơn là tiếp thị bằng phương thức sử dụng nhãn hiệu tập thể.

Chức năng của nhãn hiệu tập thể không chỉ là để phân biệt với hàng hóa dịch vụ của các cá nhân, tổ chức không phải là thành viên mà quan trọng hơn việc sử dụng nhãn hiệu tập thể là để chỉ dẫn cho người tiêu dùng hàng hóa, người sử dụng dịch vụ về những đặc tính nhất định của sản phẩm mang nhãn hiệu tập thể. Vì vậy, pháp luật sở hữu trí tuệ đã yêu cầu đơn yêu cầu đăng ký nhãn hiệu tập thể phải nộp kèm với bản quy chế quản lý và sử dụng nhãn hiệu tập thể.

Cũng giống như các loại nhãn hiệu khác, nhãn hiệu tập thể muốn được bảo hộ thì phải thực hiện thủ tục nộp đơn đăng ký nhãn hiệu tập thể. Khi thực hiện hoạt động này, cần phải chú ý một số nội dung sau:

Thứ nhất, chủ thể có quyền nộp đơn bảo hộ nhãn hiệu tập thể là: tổ chức, tập thể được thành lập hợp pháp có quyền đăng ký nhãn hiệu tập thể để các thành viên của mình sử dụng theo quy chế sử dụng nhãn hiệu tập thể. Đối với dấu hiệu chỉ nguồn gốc địa lý của hàng hóa, dịch vụ, tổ chức có quyền đăng ký là tổ chức tập thể của các tổ chức, cá nhân tiến hành sản xuất, kinh doanh tại địa phương đó,

Thứ hai, nội dung của đơn đăng ký nhãn hiệu tập thể. Đơn đăng ký nhãn hiệu tập thể phải chứa đựng đầy đủ các nội dung sau:

+ Mẫu nhãn hiệu và danh mục hàng hóa mang nhãn hiệu. Trong đó, mẫu nhãn hiệu phải được mô tả để làm rõ các yếu tố cấu thành của nhãn hiệu và ý nghĩa tổng thể của nhãn hiệu nếu có. Nếu nhãn hiệu có chứa từ ngữ thuộc ngôn ngữ hình tượng thì phải phiên âm ra, nếu có tiếng nước ngoài thì phải dịch ra tiếng việt. Hàng hóa, dịch vụ nêu trong đơn đăng ký nhãn hiệu phải được xếp vào các nhóm phù hợp với bảng phân loại theo thỏa ước Ni – xơ về phân loại quốc tế hàng hóa và dịch vụ nhằm mục đích đăng ký nhãn hiệu, do cơ quan quản lý nhà nước về quyền sở hữu công nghiệp công bố.

+ Quy chế sử dụng nhãn hiệu tập thể. Quy chế này phải bao hàm các nội dung:

–          Tên, địa chỉ, căn cứ thành lập và hoạt động của tổ chức tập thể là chủ sở hữu nhãn hiệu.

–          Các tiêu chuẩn để trở thành thành viên của tổ chức tập thể.

–          Danh sách các tổ chức, cá nhân được phép sử dụng nhãn hiệu.

–          Các điều kiện sử dụng nhãn hiệu.

–          Biện pháp xử lý hành vi vi phạm quy chế sử dụng nhãn hiệu.

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