Một số vấn đề cần lưu ý đến nhãn hiệu

Nhãn hiệu theo cách hiểu đơn giản là dấu hiệu để phân biệt hàng hóa dịch vụ của chủ thể này với các hàng hóa, dịch vụ của các chủ thể khác. Do vậy, bất cứ chủ thể nào khi thực hiện hoạt dộng sản xuất, kinh doanh cũng đều phải lựa chọn một nhãn hiệu riêng cho hàng hóa, dịch vụ của mình.

Nhãn hiệu là một khái niệm cụ thể với các quy định của pháp luật, do vậy trong quá trình sử dụng nhãn hiệu các chủ thể kinh doanh cần đảm bảo tính hợp pháp, trong đó cần chú ý đến một số vấn đề sau đây:

Thứ nhất, phân biệt giữa nhãn hiệu và thương hiệu. Hiện nay tồn tại một thực tế là khái niệm nhãn hiệu trong quy định của pháp luật trong hoạt động sản xuất kinh doanh lại được gọi là thương hiệu. Tuy nhiên, thực chất đây là hai khái niệm khác nhau, mặc dù pháp luật Việt Nam chưa quy định nhưng ở pháp luật một số nước trên thế giới thương hiệu được định nghĩa riêng với nhãn hiệu. Khác với nhãn hiệu, thương hiệu được đề cập với cách hiểu rộng hơn là tất cả những cái gì gắn liền với sản phẩm, dịch vụ để có thể tạo ra chỗ đứng của sản phẩm, dịch vụ đó trong lòng người tiêu dùng. Vì vậy, thương hiệu là sự kết hợp của nhãn hiệu, khẩu hiệu, nhạc hiệu hay, chỉ dẫn địa lý gắn liền với sản phẩm, dịch vụ…

Thứ hai, các yếu tố cấu thành nhãn hiệu. Nhãn hiệu theo pháp luật Việt Nam phải là những dấu hiệu nhìn thấy được, nên nhãn hiệu được xác định có thể là chữ cái, từ ngữ, hình ảnh, hình vẽ. Vì vậy, mùi vị, âm thanh mặc dù có thể là dấu hiệu để phân biệt hàng hóa, dịch vụ của các tổ chức, cá nhân khác nhau nhưng nó không được thừa nhận là yếu tố của nhãn hiệu và không được pháp luật bảo hộ. Tuy nhiên, khác với pháp luật Việt Nam pháp luật của một số nước trên thế giới vẫn thừa nhận các mùi vị, âm thanh là các yêu tố cấu thành nhãn hiệu.

Thứ ba, vấn đề bảo hộ quyền sở hữu công nghiệp đối với nhãn hiệu. Nhãn hiệu là một trong số các đối tượng của quyền sở hữu công nghiệp, do vậy chủ sở hữu nhãn hiệu sẽ được pháp luật bảo hộ quyền này. Tuy nhiên, khác với một số quốc gia trên thế giới việc bảo hộ nhãn hiệu căn cứ vào việc sử dụng nhãn hiệu thì ở Việt Nam, nhãn hiệu (trừ nhãn hiệu nổi tiếng) chỉ được bảo hộ khi đã tiến hành thủ tục đăng ký tại Cục sở hữu trí tuệ. Điều này có nghĩa là, pháp luật vẫn cho phép các nhà sản xuất, kinh doanh sử dụng nhãn hiệu mà không cần đăng ký, tuy nhiên nếu có tranh chấp xảy ra, pháp luật sẽ chỉ bảo hộ nếu nhãn hiệu đã được đăng ký.

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